ABSTRACT The ancient history of Nepal is assumed to have begun in 750 B.C. and ended in 250 A.D. During that period Kirats ruled the country. But no written record of this is available. Early history of Nepal had witnessed the establishment of a number of beleaguered dynasties and principalities scattered in the fertile valleys of Kathmandu and Pokhara and in the river basins of the Karnali and the Gandaki. Although some others dynasties survived for a short period of time, others ruled for centuries. The Lichhavi dynasty, for instance, lasted over four centuries (464-879 A.D.). Another great dynasty-the Malla-Dynasty-had established itself in Kathmandu valley around the 13th century, and lasted over five hundred years.The divided and hostile principalities and kingdoms were finally consolidated in 1769 under king Prithivi Narayan Shah and his successors to become the modern nation of Nepal. Socially and economically, however, the modern era in Nepal's history has started with the revival of the national aspirations of the poor countries in Asia after the Second World War. These aspirations were mainly concerned with acquiring independence, and emancipation from the perpetual state of ignorance, poverty and political stress. Failing to democratize the regime and to bring about educational, social and economic reforms in the country, the Rana Regime was finally thrown out by the joint efforts of the King and people of Nepal in 1951. Within the frame of the open policy with other nations, Nepal has been able to implement four economic development plans, with the cooperation of several countries and International Agencies. The fifth economic development plan (1975-80) has placed special priority on agricultural development as infrastructure for future industrial development and also has laid emphasis on industrialization of the country than the previous plans. The objectives of the 1981 Population Census were: 1. to provide data for small administrative areas of the country on population, housing and household facilities, 2. to provide sex disaggregated data of the population and other variables related to households, demographic, social and economic conditions of the country, and 3. to provide detailed information on women, children, the aged and the disabled. 4. to determine the prevailing trends and characteristics of population change, namely, age structure, mortality, fertility, education and labour force. The 1981 census contained the following itemsas the content of the census; Individual Questionnaire : Name of the family members, Relation with household head, Sex, Age, Birth place, Citizenship, Mother tongue, Religion, Educational attainment, Marital Status, Economic activities, Profession Household Questionnaire : Name of the household head, Number of present members of the households- total, male, female, Number of absentee members of the households- total, male, female, Place of absentee and reason of leaving, Numer of deaths in the households in the past 12 months-male and female, Physical and mental disabalities, Number of radios in the households, Economic activities(agriculture and cottage industries). SCOPE The scope of the 1981 Population Census of Nepal includes: HOUSEHOLD: Household characteristicds, household listing, household head, present members of the households, absentee members of the households, Numer of deaths in the households, Physical and mental disabalities radios in the households, Economic activities(agriculture and cottage industries) INDIVIDUAL: Household members, Relation with household head, Sex, Age, Birth place, Citizenship, Mother tongue.Religion, Educational attainment, Marital Status, Economic activities and Profession COVERAGE Geographic Coverage National Coverage Zone Districts Town/ Village Panchayat Universe The census covered all de jure household members (usual residents) in private households.