ABSTRACT Objectives of the National Census of Agriculture of Nepal, 1991/92 The main objective of the census of agriculture of Nepal is to publish data at district level on the following: 1. Structure and characteristics of the holding such as size, agricultural land use, land tenure, land fragmentation, area planted to crops, number of livestock, and others; 2. To provide benchmark data for improving the reliability of estimates from current agricultural survey; and, 3. To provide basic data for national, ecological belts and development regions levels for national as well as sub-national policy, planning and decision making purposes. The National Sample Census of Agriculture,1991/92 of Nepal (NSCA 1991/92) was conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The 1991/92 NSCA was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved the complete enumeration of all agricultural holdings in the country including the area of the holding and livestock number. The enumeration of all the holdings was an integral activity of the first phase of the Census of Population 1991, which undertook the operation in June 1991. Some questions on agricultural activities were asked to identify the agricultural holding. The second phase of the 1991/92 NSCA was the selection and enumeration of sample holdings to widen the scope of the census from January to June 1992. Data on agricultural crops gathered refer to calendar year 1991 while the livestock and poultry population refers at the time of enumeration, from January to June 1992. SCOPE The scope of the 1991/92 NSCA is almost the same as that in 1981/82 National Sample Census of Agriculture which adopted most of the recommendations of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the collection of data under the following main headings: 1. Identification - Holding and holder identification. 2. Holder characteristics - Age and sex of holder; legal status of the holding; use of produce from holding; whether received agricultural loan and the source. 3. Demographic and other characteristics - Age and sex of household members. Characteristics of the farm population were gathered in the Census of Population 1991 but will be included in the NSCA 1991/92 analysis of results. 4. Employment - For agricultural labour: permanent workers by sex and employment of occasional workers. Economic activities of the members of the household of the holder were not taken in the agriculture census because these were already covered in the Census of Population 1991 but will be included in the analysis of results of the 1991/92 NCA. 5. Land and water - For holding as a whole: number of parcels; area; type of land; irrigated land, source of irrigation; etc. For each parcel: area; type of land; type of soil, color of soil; irrigated; area rented from others; whether rented out land; land use (whether arable, land under temporary crops, temporary meadow, temporary fallow; land under permanent crops; permanent meadows and pasture; pond; woodland/forest; and land not elsewhere classified) land tenure; and part of holding made uncultivable due to flooding and/or soil erosion during the reference year. 6. Crops - Temporary crops: name of crops grown and area harvested on each parcel. Permanent crops: name of crops grown for each parcel; number of trees of productive and non-productive ages in compact plantations; and number of scattered trees. Use of agricultural inputs for major crops: type of seed; fertilizers, organic and inorganic: area and quantity of inorganic (chemical) fertilizer used; pesticides; use of irrigation and high yielding varieties of seeds; cropping patterns for each parcel, whether pure stand, mixed crop, or associated crop. 7. Livestock - Animal numbers by type according to age and sex; poultry numbers: chicken classified by sex and for female, whether laying eggs or not. 8. Machinery and equipment - Use of items of agricultural machinery and equipment; number of items; and source (owned by holder, common, landlord, or others). 9. Buildings and other structures - Whether non-residential buildings used for agricultural purposes; tenure and type of these buildings. 10. Ancillary activities on the holding - Existence of forest trees and fisheries on the holding; number of forest trees; type and area of fishing installation. COVERAGE Geographic Coverage (1) National Geographic Coverage (2) Urban and rural areas Geographic Coverage (3) Ecological belt Geographic Coverage (4) Develovement Region Geographic Coverage (5) District Geographic Unit District Universe Holdings having area under crops less than 0.01355 ga (8 dhurs) in Terai or 0.01272 hs (4 anas) in Hilly and Mountains region, but raising at least 2 productive animals or 20 poultry birds are included in the category "Holding without land". Agricultural activities undertaken by government organizations, businesses like corporations and other juridical persons were not covered by the NSCA, 1991/92.