Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia bordered by China in the North and India in the South, East, and West. Nepal comprises 7 provinces and 753 local bodies and has a total population of 28,431,494. With a total area of 147,181 sq. km, Nepal has a diverse geography with landscapes ranging from fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and the high Himalayas with eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on earth. Nepal is a multi-ethnic nation with Nepali as the official language.
According to the Housing and Population Census 2011, the total population of Nepal is 28,431,494 of which 49% are male and 51% are female and has a population density of 180 per sq. km. The country has 5,427,302 households with an average household size of 4.88. In terms of ethnicity, Khas-Arya is the largest group (31.2%) followed by Adibasi Janajatis (28.7%), Madeshi (15.3%), Muslims (4.4%), Tharu (6.6%) and Muslims (4.4%). Altogether 123 languages are spoken in Nepal. Nepali, the official language of Nepal, is spoken as a mother tongue by 44.6% of the total population followed by Maithili (11.7%), Bhojpuri (6%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Newari (3.2%), Bajjika (3%), Magar (3%), Doteli (3%), Urdu (2.5%) and others (12%). In terms of religion, Hinduism is followed by 81.3% of the population while Buddhism (9.0%), Islam (4.4%), Kirat (3.1%), Christianity (1.4%), and others (0.8%).
The Gross Domestic Product of Nepal has reached to 2.6 Trillion Nepali Rupees in 2018 with an annual growth rate of 5.89%. In FY2017/18 Nepal allocated an annual budget of 12 billion. The GDP per capita stands at USD 1001. Nepal’s economy is dominated by the Tertiary Sector, which contributes 57.61% of the GDP followed by the Primary Sector (28.21%) and the remaining 14.18% by the Secondary Sector.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, POVERTY AND INEQUALITY
Nepal falls under the category of countries with a low human development index (0.49). 21.6% of the total population are living below the poverty line and 28% are multidimensionally poor. In 2010, the GINI index for Nepal was 32.8 index.
EDUCATION & HEALTH
According to the Population Census 2011, 65.9% of Nepali are literate. 75.13% of the male population are literate whereas only 57.38% female population are literate.
According to Population Census 2011, the life expectancy of Nepali has reached 68.8 years.