The World Bank, 24 July 2018
Take a close look at your smart phone for a moment. What do you see? A glass screen. A button equipped with fingerprint recognition. A camera lens, flashlight, microphone, and speaker. Each of these components, and others – including chips, processors, batteries – are independently sourced from companies located all over the world and assembled into a finished product at factories, often in China. Any smart phone you purchase, and its components, has likely passed through customs several times, landed on multiple countries and continents, and been touched by countless workers.
Logistics makes all this possible. A $4.3 trillion industry affecting nearly every country in the world, logistics is the network of services that supports the physical movement of goods within and across borders. It comprises an array of activities including transportation, warehousing, brokerage, express delivery, terminal operations, and even data and information management. How efficiently goods can move through these systems to their final destinations is a key determinant to a country’s trade opportunities.
“Logistics are the backbone of global trade,” notes Caroline Freund, Director, Macroeconomics, Trade & Investment Global Practice at the World Bank Group. “As supply chains become more globally dispersed, the quality of a country’s logistics services can determine whether or not it can participate in the global economy.”
Benchmarking Logistics Performance
With trade and logistics touching so many areas of an economy, it can be difficult to get a complete picture of a country’s performance. This is why the Logistics Performance Index (LPI), part of the biennial report Connecting to Compete, evaluates countries across a number of indicators. The index, which takes into account factors such as including logistics competence and skills, the quality of trade-related infrastructure, the price of international shipments, and the frequency with which shipments reach their destination on time, helps governments benchmark their progress over time and in comparison to similar countries.
Utilizing surveys of logistics professionals, the LPI offers two perspectives on a country’s performance:
The World Bank Group has been scoring countries on these issues every two years since the inaugural edition of Connecting to Compete in 2007. Consistently, high-income countries, particularly those in Western Europe, emerge as world leaders on logistics. In fact, the LPI score of high-income countries is 48% higher, on average, than low-income countries. Among the 30 top performing countries, 24 are members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
“Across the board, we have seen most countries investing in logistics-related reforms, especially in the areas of building infrastructure and facilitating trade,” explains Jean Francois-Arvis, Economist at the World Bank Group and report co-author. “Despite these efforts to modernize services, developing countries face many remaining challenges. This explains a persistent gap between high- and low-income countries in terms of logistics performance.”
But income alone is not the sole determinant of a country’s LPI score. Vietnam, Thailand, Rwanda, China and India all outperform their income groups. These countries tend to have access to sea ports or large international transportation hubs.
For individual countries, logistics performance is key to their economic growth and competitiveness. Inefficient logistics raise the cost of doing business and reduce the potential for integration with global value chains. The toll can be particularly heavy for developing countries trying to compete in the global marketplace. Governments can use the LPI to better understand the link between logistics, trade, and growth, and what policies they can enact to globally compete.
2018 LPI: Key Findings